Olympic Games: all about this word

The International Olympic Committee(IOC).
(Comité International Olympique)

This organisation is responsible for organising the biggest, and most
important amateur sporting festival in the world. It is not affiliated with
any government, and is described as a non-commercial organization.

Founded in 1894 on June 23, during the Congress of Paris, by Pierre de Coubertin,
it was entrusted to control, develop and maintain the modern Olympic Games.
Its headquarters are in Lausanne, Switzerland.

The original committee in 1894 consisted of 14 members ,with Demetrius Vikelas
as its president.
One of its primary aims was to make sure that the Games were delievered
in the same spirit which inspired their revival.
That is to promote the development of amateur sport within the Olympic ideal,
(irrespective of outside influences) throughout the world.

The original 14 members were hand picked by de Coubertin himself, for showing
loyality to the Olympic Movement.
Coubertin took on the presidency in 1896, and led the Olympic movement until 1925.

Membership since the beginning has been self-perpetuating
(ie,new members are elected by the current members),
and members are not considered as representing countries.

The maximum membership is today set at 115.All members must speak either English or French and they
can only be elected from countries that have National Olympic Committees(NOCs).

Of these, 70 are individuals,
15 are Olympic athletes, 15 are National Olympic Committee presidents,
and the final 15 are International Sports Federation presidents.

Each member is elected for a term of 8 years.
These terms are renewable, but but they must retire at 70 years of age.

The IOC president himself is elected for a term of 8 years.
After the each term, he can apply for re-election for a further
four years.
The current president, Juan António Samaranch (of Catalonia, Spain) was elected in 1980.
He is due to retire in 2001.
Up to this point, there have been 7 IOC presidents (not including de Blonay whose position
was only temporary).
Previous presidents were Dimítrios Vikélas (1894-96, Greece);
Pierre (baron) de Coubertin (1896-1925, France);
Henri comte de Baillet-Latour (1925-42, Belgium);
J. Sigfrid Edström (1946-52, Sweden);
Avery Brundage(1952-72, United States);
and Michael Morris, Lord Killanin (1972-80, Ireland).

The IOC’s founder,Pierre de Coubertin,
was convinced that the destruction of the Olympic Games of
ancient times was caused by the corruption in morals and ideals of its first founders.

Thus IOC members may not accept from any government,
organization or individual, instructions or material
rewards that could in any way affect their independence.
Nor can they be under the authority of any government,
organization, or individual who may direct or compromise their
votes.

National Olympic Committees (NOCs):
Outside the central organisation of the IOC, we have National Olympic Committees (NOCs)
and International Federations (IFs) and National Federations (NFs).

National Olympic Committees (NOCs):
Like the IOC, these organisations don’t come
under the authority of any government,
organization, or individual who may direct or compromise their
independence.

They develop sport on a national level
leading the Olympic movement within each country.

The members of a NOC may include Olympic athletes, IOC members, members of
various national sport governing bodies and other sporting & community organisations.
They must be officially recognized by the IOC and cannot
act in contradiction to the Olympic Charter.
To be officially recognised by the IOC, each NOC must have members from at least
five national governing bodies.
NOCs have the power to select a national team to participate in the Olympic Games.

International Federations (IFs):
International Federations (IFs) administer one or more sports
on an international level. This administration involves hosting competitions,
enforcing & setting the rules, and developing and promoting the sport on a world-wide level.
They administer their sports at the Olympics.
The International Federation of Basketball (FIBA) is one example of a IF.
It was this organisation which changed the eligibility rules allowing professional
basketball players to compete in the Olympics.

National Federations(NF):
National Federations, govern and develop a sport within in each country.
They conduct competitions, and national championships.
They also select teams to compete internationally (this includes for the Olympics).
Each NF is the only representive of a sport which will be recognised by that
sports IF.

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